Saturday, January 28, 2012

Help Kiribati Stone Warriors Fight, Save it from Sinking

From: Pacific Scoop

Article – UNESCO

Kiribati is a nation of around 100,000 people who live on a raised coral island and 33 atolls. It is one of the low-laying islands in the Pacific with its highest point of just three metres above sea level.by Natan Itonga and Akatsuki Takahashi

Kiribati is a nation of around 100,000 people who live on a raised coral island and 33 atolls. It is one of the low-laying islands in the Pacific with its highest point of just three metres above sea level.

The country is one of the islands that have been most seriously threatened by climate change effects. A further sea level rise of only one metre would make a big impact on the life of inhabitants on the atolls.

As such, the outcome of the UN Climate Change Conference held in December last year in Durban, South Africa was disappointing since the Conference concluded with an agreement for further talks on a new climate change agreement with legal force by 2015 to be ratified by 2020.

“There is no time to waste,” Pelenise Alofa, a member of the Kiribati Climate Action Network stated in the Weekend Observer, 7 January 2012.

“We need to build more seawalls and work on water projects. The biggest threat to Kiribati is coastal erosion and water salinisation. We need to address these problems before 2020,” she said.

While the international community is delaying actions, the country of Kiribati in itself is at risk of disappearing together with its peoples and their memory.

In a November 2011 statement of Ambassador Dessima Williams, Chair of the Small Island State Alliance, which represents 39 small island nations in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, and twenty-eight percent of developing countries, she asserted: “If Durban puts off a legally binding agreement and closes the door on raising mitigation ambition before 2020 many of our small island states will be literary and figuratively doomed.”

“As noted by the International Energy Agency, delaying action until 2017 would close the door to any hope of keeping warming below 2C and put humanity on a course to the devastation of 4C warming and many metres of sea level rise.

“The proposed 2020 timeline would also leave more than five years between the next report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC due in 2014 and a new round of emission reduction commitments. A key demand of the Small Island Alliance is a second five-year commitment to the Kyoto Protocol, which currently binds 37 industrialized nations and the European Union to reduce their carbon emissions to agreed targets by 2012, and a new parallel agreement for those with no current Kyoto obligations.”

Kiribati is a state party to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. The Phoenix Islands Protected Area in the east of Kiribati, one of the largest marine protected areas in the world, was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2010.

The wealth of Kiribati heritage is found not only in nature but also in culture. The Culture Division of the Ministry of Internal and Social Affairs that is in charge of cultural affairs at the Kiribati Government recently organised a workshop on the safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Kiribati in order to discuss a safeguarding strategy in cooperation with the UNESCO Office in Apia and with financial assistance of the Government of Japan.

One of the most notable outcomes of the workshop was the support expressed by the Elders to Kiribati’s ratification of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention. In Kiribati, the Elders have been responsible for overseeing matters relating to the community life in the country. Historically, they have been regarded as source of wisdom by community members and their authorities still prevails even nowadays. The effectiveness of any external interventions therefore depends on the endorsement of the Elders of the country.

A draft of five-year strategy and action plan for Intangible Cultural Heritage safeguarding in Kiribati was also prepared during the workshop by the participants and endorsed by the Elders.

Like many other Pacific islands, in Kiribati heritage is an all-embracing concept. Tangible and intangible cultural heritage co-exist together in living environment. For example, in Kiribati there remains a unique cultural heritage, called Nnabakana. Its history has been known to this date through oral histories and traditions transmitted from generation to generation among local communities.

Nnabakana, located at Tabiteuea, one of the southern islands of Kiribati, contains huge stone monuments with associated stories of battles that were fought among islands around the 16th century. These monuments are human-made stone pillars, six of which remain unspoiled, resembling giant human warriors built to scare away enemies. Some of them are more than three metres high.

When placed six metres apart in a row on the coastal side of the islet and seen from the distance, the pillars look like an army of giants marching ready for war.

The Kiribati’s Culture Division recently undertook research on the site. Through the research, the Culture Division obtained GPS data, images and video footages relating to Nnabakana site as well as interviews with locals living nearby.

The outcome of the research clearly showed the unique value of the Nnabakana site in Kiribati for the cultural history of early civil wars between islands. This evidence remains today through the manmade pillars, signs of art and warfare skills.

The rich oral stories on the civil war makes the site particularly interesting for Kiribati where foreign contents still dominate its history education at school. Pacific islanders have been taught about “The Battle of Waterloo by Napoleon” through foreign-made curricula and text books, while they have not had a chance to learn of Pacific civil war.

The research result also shows the urgent need of its safeguarding since the site located at the coastal zone is exposed to harsh weather conditions facing threats from rising sea level. The site is fully exposed to the hot sunny days, affecting most pillars that cracked and toppled. The strong winds from the west, high tides and big waves are also forcing the pillars to fall and get destroyed.

The Kiribati’s Culture Division presented the outcome of the research at the Pacific World Heritage Workshop held in Apia in September last year. The presentation caught the attention of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and resulted in the financial assistance from the European Union through the Secretariat to support a mapping exercise of the site in 2012.

This new grant will allow the Culture Division to obtain carbon dating information and to carry out further documentation and recording. The steps to be followed would be to organise consultations with the Elders of communities concerned and to formulate a long-term management and safeguarding plan for this unique heritage.

Nowadays, the stone warriors are fighting primarily against the new enemy of climate change, since Kiribati may exist only as underwater cultural heritage in the future if the international community continues to delay actions. It is hoped that safeguarding the Nnabakana site will help Kiribati to further advocate for the emergency of its situation, paving a way for long-term solutions by, for example, nominating the heritage for international recognition under the UNESCO Culture Conventions.
Notes:

From civil war to Kiribati stone warriors
According to the oral traditions, there was a civil war long time ago in Kiribati. It was started when a little island called Beru in the south of Kiribati was overpopulated, and Kaitu, its leader, set out on a mission of conquest sometime around 1550. Kaitu selected Uakeia as his strategist. And he launched a military expedition with an army of 600 men travelling in 37 large war canoes and outriggers. The first landing was made at the southern end of Tabiteuea. The locals at Tabiteuea fled, warning the northern villages and gathering forces to fight with the army under Kaitu. Some sources stated that local informants said that Kaitu and group were from Beru while Uakeia and few others were from Nikunau,both islands were one during the conquest.

Expecting a battle with the Tabiteueans, Kaitu consulted his strategist Uakeia. Uakeia turned to god for advice. The god told him that the battle would take place on Tabiteuea at Tabuaeroa where a piece of land between two islets was left uncovered at low tide. Then the Beru and Nikunau army spent an entire day and night in setting up 30 stone men who were twice as high as an ordinary man. These stone men armed with spears and placed to defend the islet looked like mighty and intimidating figures. On the next morning, the Tabiteueans saw these colossal warriors defending the islet and took them for the Beru chiefs. They were scared by the sight and fled. Then Kaitu continued his advance up the atolls.

“they set up thirty stone men, to spans high, armed with multi-pronged wooden spears, they resembled Gilbertese warriors”
“thirty stone men, to spans high, armed with multi-pronged wooden spears…”

Quotes from Arthur Grimbles writing and Janeresture website

ENDS

Friday, January 27, 2012

The rising cost of climate change

From: DawnNews ByAnish Alavi

In Pakistan, 3.57 billion dollars need to be spent in the coming 18 years to deal with the affects of climate change. —File image

In Pakistan, 3.57 billion dollars need to be spent in the coming 18 years to deal with the affects of climate change. — Photo by Amir Patni

Pakistan, Guatemala and Russia have been the countries worst hit by climate change in the recent past, with thousands of lives lost to extreme weather events.

In addition to being the worst-affected, the poor developing countries hit by climate change have had the least amount of responsibility towards causing these catastrophes. While earth’s climate has been evolving continuously over the last millennium, the last two centuries have seen unprecedented threats to climate change.

Located in the sub-tropics and partially in temperate regions, Pakistan’s southern tip hits the Arabian Sea and at its northern end are the Great Himalayas. Climatologically, most parts of Pakistan are arid to semi-arid with significant spatial and temporal variability in climatic parameters. Fifty nine per cent of the annual rainfall which occurs in the country is due to the monsoon rains.

The northern region is dominated by the mountains where climate is ranging from humid to arid. Below the north, tropical continental climate prevails. The Greater Himalayan region receives winter precipitation mostly in the form of snow and ice, and the melting snow keeps the rivers flowing through out the year.

The coastal climate of Pakistan is restrained to a narrow strip along the coast in the south and south east. However, as large numbers of residents dwell in low coastal areas or near the river delta where sea level rise and flooding are frequent, Pakistan has to suffer a great loss every year.

At a recent seminar held at Karachi’s NED University, “Climatic change and its impacts especially on Pakistan” was highlighted and experts discussed climatic change in Pakistan.

Discussing the subject of ‘Biodiversity in Pakistan,’ WWF Pakistan Director and team leader Rab Nawaz that while an average number of 20-25 new species are found every year, world is also losing five species per year. Some of these species, which are found in Pakistan include: The species which he highlighted were:

  1. Himalayan Monal: Found in Gilgit and Skardu regions, these live on glaciers and have a vibrant colour but due to the depletion of the glaciers, this species seems to be disappearing in the recent past.
  2. Indus Blind Dolphin: These are found in the Indus River up until the border of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The recent droughts have increased the death-rate amongst this species.
  3. Green turtle: Pakistan is known for the unique breeding beaches of the green turtle, but due to the variation in the temperature of the climate, they are also vanishing.

Meanwhile, Professor Imran Ahmed highlighted water-related issues being faced worldwide. “In Bangladesh,” he said “the harvesting season is usually hit by droughts and by the time the season is over, monsoon rains begin, which affects the agriculture sector.”

In other parts of the world, Zimbabwe is also hit by drought on a regular basis, whereas in the UK, frequency of floods has been increasing along with comparatively warmer summers.

In Peru, warmer regions are moving towards the colder regions and cold regions are moving towards the warmer ones.

Elaborating on the subject of climate change, Ahmed said that weather is the state of an atmosphere while climate is the weather persistent for 20-30 years.

He argued that it is not global warming alone that is pushing the world towards climatic catastrophe, adding that climatic change is impacting on air pollution, and it increasing health risks, decreasing the crop yields and affecting the bio-diversity.

Ahmed noted that while on one hand scientists complain about depletion of glaciers, on the other hand they claim an increase in the number of glaciers in the north.

The last speaker was Mohammad Ahsan Siddiqui, who is Assistant Professor in Environmental department at NED University and he spoke on cost of climate change in Pakistan.

He said that according to a World Bank report on Pakistan, $3.57 billion need to be spent in the coming 18 years to deal with the affects of climate change.

According to statistics, Siddiqui said that around 23 per cent of Pakistan’s land area and 50 per cent of the entire population is vulnerable to the climatic change related disasters.

According to the Lancet Volume 376, September 25, 2010, crop damages due to the flood in Pakistan in 2010 require $1 billion to be spent.

Referring to the future predictions, he claimed that more floods, droughts, severe heat waves are predicted and that $5.75 billion would be required to deal with these disasters.

He stressed that creating awareness, preparing for natural disasters and the interpolation and extrapolation of data predicting and correlating events would help minimize the cost impact.

Closing the event, NED University’s Vice Chancellor Abdul Kalam said, “we will die one day, but if we did not do something regarding to the climatic change, the coming generations will not forgive us”.

The writer is an assistant multimedia content producer at Dawn.com.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Florida Institute of Technology (FIT) part of group to guess how sea will rise in region

From: Florida Today by: Jim Waymer

By 2014, they’ll make those precise predictions for regions that include vulnerable coastlines such as Cape Canaveral (pictured), Fort Pierce, Tallahassee, Jacksonville and Tampa, as well as coastal Georgia, the Carolinas and New Jersey, FIT professor Ben Horton said.

By 2014, they’ll make those precise predictions for regions that include vulnerable coastlines such as Cape Canaveral (pictured), Fort Pierce, Tallahassee, Jacksonville and Tampa, as well as coastal Georgia, the Carolinas and New Jersey, FIT professor Ben Horton said. / File photo
Sea levels increase because the ocean’s volume expands as it warms. More freshwater also flows from land as ice, mountain glaciers and frozen soil melt. And the relative ocean level rises as land sinks either naturally or from groundwater overuse.

A Florida Institute of Technology professor and his students will take part in a $1.5 million study to predict sea-level rise in Cape Canaveral and several other regions on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and then spell out ways communities can adapt.

“What we’re trying to do has never been done before,” said Ben Horton, a geologist at University of Pennsylvania who’s leading the study. “What we’re trying to do for the first time ever is produce regional projections of rise in sea-level.”

By 2014, they’ll make those precise predictions for regions that include vulnerable coastlines such as Cape Canaveral, Fort Pierce, Tallahassee, Jacksonville and Tampa, as well as coastal Georgia, the Carolinas and New Jersey, Horton said.

Researchers at seven universities will share the grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Office.

FIT professor Ken Lindeman will receive $170,000 over three years to compile a summary of tools for transferring technical information about adapting to sea-level rise to policymakers.

“This is for the average Joe,” said Lindeman, a professor in Florida Tech’s Department of Education and Interdisciplinary Studies.

“Basically, people just don’t know what’s out there,” Lindeman explained. “In discipline after discipline, excellent documents are produced and forgotten. ... They get buried so deep they can’t even collect dust.”

Lindeman and his students will expand upon a collection of documents about climate adaptation they’ve been amassing online.

“Many countries have very well-developed climate science and management initiatives under way. There is much we can learn from work being done elsewhere, often in other languages,” Lindeman said.

The researchers will combine empirical and modeled sea-level rise scenarios with hurricane and storm surge models to predict how much worse future storm surge will be.

Sea levels rise because the ocean’s volume expands as it warms. Freshwater from land also contributes to the rise when ice, mountain glaciers and frozen soil melt. Land sinks naturally or from groundwater overuse as well, adding to the relative rise between land and sea.

At current sea-level rise estimates of 2 to 3 millimeters per year in Florida, the ocean would take more than 400 years to rise by 4 feet.

But fire, sewer, roads and other critical infrastructure along the Space Coast could be compromised by half that amount of rise, something that could happen by 2050, a recent study of Satellite Beach suggests.

“The ranges of rates of change vary among sites and according to different tools,” Lindeman said.

“But the majority of tools being used and the majority of sites suggests an accelerating sea-level rise in the latter part of the century.”

Contact Waymer at 321-242-3663 or jwaymer@floridatoday.com.